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Artigos Científicos

quinta-feira, 12 março 2020 16:26

Trends in the Prevalence and Incidence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Among Adults and Children of Different Racial and Ethnic Groups

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Chung W1, Jiang SF2, Paksarian D3, Nikolaidis A4, Castellanos FX5, 6, Merikangas KR3, Milham MP4, 6

1
Department of Psychiatry, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, San Francisco.
2
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland.
3
Genetic Epidemiology Research Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
4
Center for the Developing Brain, Child Mind Institute, New York, New York.
5
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hassenfeld Children's Hospital at NYU Langone, New York, New York.
6
Center for Biomedical Imaging and Neuromodulation, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, New York.

Jama Network

November 1, 2019


ABSTRACT:

Importance: An increasing prevalence of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and treatment has been reported in clinical settings and administrative data in the United States. However, there are limited data on recent trends of adult ADHD diagnosis among racial/ethnic subgroups.

Method: Fifty-five blood samples of 33 patients with ADHD were examined using high-performance liquid chromatography.

Objective To examine trends, including associated demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, and negative outcomes, in the prevalence and incidence of adult ADHD diagnosis among 7 racial/ethnic groups during a 10-year period.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study investigated trends in the diagnosis of ADHD in adults who identified as African American or black, Native American, Pacific Islander, Latino or Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, Asian American, or other using the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan medical records. A total of 5 282 877 adult patients and 867 453 children aged 5 to 11 years who received care at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016, were included. Data analysis was performed from January 2017 through September 2019.

Exposures: Period of ADHD diagnosis.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence and incidence of licensed mental health clinician–diagnosed ADHD in adults and prevalence of licensed mental health clinician–diagnosed ADHD in children aged 5 to 11 years.

Results: Of 5 282 877 adult patients (1 155 790 [21.9%] aged 25-34 years; 2 667 562 [50.5%] women; 2 204 493 [41.7%] white individuals), 59 371 (1.12%) received diagnoses of ADHD. Prevalence increased from 0.43% in 2007 to 0.96% in 2016. Among 867 453 children aged 5 to 11 years (424 449 [48.9%] girls; 260 236 [30.0%] white individuals), prevalence increased from 2.96% in 2007 to 3.74% in 2016. During the study period, annual adult ADHD prevalence increased for every race/ethnicity, but white individuals consistently had the highest prevalence rates (white individuals: 0.67%-1.42%; black individuals: 0.22%-0.69%; Native American individuals: 0.56%-1.14%; Pacific Islander individuals: 0.11%-0.39%; Hispanic or Latino individuals: 0.25%-0.65%; Asian American individuals: 0.11%-0.35%; individuals from other races/ethnicities: 0.29%-0.71%). Incidence of ADHD diagnosis per 10 000 person-years increased from 9.43 in 2007 to 13.49 in 2016. Younger age (eg, >65 years vs 18-24 years: odds ratio [OR], 0.094; 95% CI, 0.088-0.101; P < .001), male sex (women: OR, 0.943; 95% CI, 0.928-0.959; P < .001), white race (eg, Asian patients vs white patients: OR, 0.248; 95% CI, 0.240-0.257; P < .001), being divorced (OR, 1.131; 95% CI, 1.093-1.171; P < .001), being employed (eg, retired vs employed persons: OR, 0.278; 95% CI, 0.267-0.290; P < .001), and having a higher median education level (OR, 2.156; 95% CI, 2.062-2.256; P < .001) were positively associated with odds of ADHD diagnosis. Having an eating disorder (OR, 5.192; 95% CI, 4.926-5.473; P < .001), depressive disorder (OR, 4.118; 95% CI, 4.030-4.207; P < .001), bipolar disorder (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 4.556-4.894; P < .001), or anxiety disorder (OR, 2.438; 95% CI, 2.385-2.491; P < .001) was associated with higher odds of receiving an ADHD diagnosis. Adults with ADHD had significantly higher odds of frequent health care utilization (OR, 1.303; 95% CI, 1.272-1.334; P < .001) and sexually transmitted infections (OR, 1.289; 95% CI 1.251-1.329; P < .001) compared with adults with no ADHD diagnosis.

Conclusions and Relevance: This study confirmed the reported increases in rates of ADHD diagnosis among adults, showing substantially lower rates of detection among minority racial/ethnic subgroups in the United States. Higher odds of negative outcomes reflect the economic and personal consequences that substantiate the need to improve assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults.


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