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Artigos Científicos

terça-feira, 07 maio 2019 15:34

School Readiness in Preschoolers With Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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Hannah T. Perrin, Nicole A. Heller, Irene M. Loe

Pediatrics 

August 2019, VOLUME 144 / ISSUE 2


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To compare school readiness in preschoolers with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using a comprehensive framework. We hypothesized that preschoolers with ADHD symptoms have higher odds of school readiness impairment.

METHODS: Children ages 4 to 5 years (n = 93) were divided into 2 groups on the basis of presence of ADHD symptoms (ADHD group, n = 45; comparison group, n = 48). School readiness was assessed through 10 component measures, including direct assessments and standardized questionnaires, regarding 5 school readiness domains: physical well-being and motor development, social and emotional development, approaches to learning, language, and cognition and general knowledge. Analysis of covariance compared group mean scores on component measures. Domain impairment was defined as score ≥1 SD from the test population mean in the unfavorable direction on ≥1 measure in the domain. School readiness impairment was defined as impairment in ≥2 of 5 domains. Logistic regression predicted impairment within domains and overall readiness.

RESULTS: The ADHD group demonstrated significantly worse mean scores on 8 of 10 component measures and greater odds of impairment in all domains except for cognition and general knowledge. Overall, 79% of the ADHD group and 13% of the comparison group had school readiness impairment (odds ratio 21, 95% confidence interval 5.67–77.77, P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: Preschoolers with ADHD symptoms are likely to have impaired school readiness. We recommend early identification of school readiness impairment by using a comprehensive 5-domain framework in children with ADHD symptoms paired with targeted intervention to improve outcomes.

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